Chapter Notes

Introduction: Pollution – Air, Soil, Water, Body, and Spirit, vi-xxix

Page x, ‘Xi Jinping holds a Spring Festival papercut and offers New Year greetings to the people of China’ 习近平手持“三阳开泰”剪纸向全国人民拜年, people.cn, 16 February 2015, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0216/c1024-26573390.html

Page xi, Ambrose Lancaster, ‘Watches for the Year of the Goat’, 26 February 2015, online at: http://timetransformed.com/2015/02/26/watches-for-the-year-of-the-goat/ 

Page xi, A state media article draws attention to the image of Xi Jinping holding the ‘three-goat’ papercut and explains its symbolism. ‘What’s the meaning of san yang kai tai?’ “三阳开泰”到底什么意思?, people.cn, 19 February 2016, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0219/c1001-26584006.html

Page xiii, Yang Fan 杨帆, ‘Are seventeen years of repeated prohibitions sufficient to deter encroachments on cultural circles by officials?’ 17年禁令重重,难挡官员染指文化圈?, people.cn, 21 January 2015, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0121/c1001-26421731.html

Page xvii, Fan Xutao 潘旭涛, ‘Flush out the filth and make things clean to win the hearts of the people: Xi Jinping’s keywords on government, no.31, political ecology’ 激浊扬清 凝聚民心; 习近平治国理政关键词 (31)政治生态, people.cn, 16 May 2016, online at: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrbhwb/html/2016-05/16/content_1679279.htm

Page xviii, The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, ‘Dictionary of Xi Jinping’s New Terms’, 30 December 2015, online at: http://www.scio.gov.cn/32618/Document/1460610/1460610.htm

Page xx, Anne Henochowicz, ‘Minitrue: Trolling Tsai Ing-wen Beyond the Great Firewall’, China Digital Times, 22 January 2016, online at: http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2016/01/minitrue-trolling-tsai-ing-wen-beyond-great-firewall/; Chris Buckley and Austin Ramzy, ‘Singer’s Apology for Waving Taiwan Flag Stirs Backlash of its Own, The New York Times, 17 January 2016, online at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/17/world/asia/taiwan-china-singer-chou-tzu-yu.html

Page xxi, Mo Zhixu, ‘China’s Future: Unstable and Unsettled’, Chinachange.org, 16 April 2016, online at: https://chinachange.org/2016/04/06/chinas-future-unstable-and-unsettled/

Page xxi, David Shambaugh, China’s Future, New York: Polity, 2016. See also David Shambaugh, ‘The Coming Chinese Crackup’, The Wall Street Journal, 6 March 2015, online at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-coming-chinese-crack-up-1425659198

Page xxi, Pei Minxin, ‘The Twilight of Communist party rule in China’, The American Interest, 12 November 2015, online at: http://www.the-american-interest.com/2015/11/12/the-twilight-of-communist-party-rule-in-china/

Page xxii, Mo Zhixu, ‘China’s Future: Unstable and Unsettled’, Chinachange.org, 16 April 2016, online at: https://chinachange.org/2016/04/06/chinas-future-unstable-and-unsettled/

Page xxii, Jeffrey Wasserstrom, ‘The Great Fall of China’ The Wall Street Journal, 28 March 2016, online at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-great-fall-of-china-1459206467

Page xxii, Peter Hartcher, ‘Is the Chinese Dragon losing its Puff?’, The Age, 16 March 2015, online at: http://www.smh.com.au/comment/is-the-chinese-dragon-losing-its-puff-20150316-1m0bx9.html

Forum: Where There’s Smoke, pp. 10-13

Page 12, ‘Beijing smoking ban claims 1st victim’, China.org.cn, 2 June 2015, online at: http://china.org.cn/china/2015-06/02/content_35715150.htm

Page 13, Zhang Hui, ‘Smoking ban “satisfactory” ’, Global Times, 4 July 2015, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/930330.shtml

Page 13, ‘Mr. Six awarded dirty ashtray award: a cigarette every 1.3 minutes’ “老炮儿被颁脏烟灰缸奖:1.3分钟吸一次烟”, Sina.com.cn, 17 May 2015, online at: http://ent.sina.com.cn/m/c/2016-05-17/doc-ifxsenvn7269459.shtml

 Page 13, Cao Siqi, ‘Film producer defends excessive smoking scenes in Mr. Six’, Global Times, 4 January 2016, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/961636.shtml

Forum: Tu Youyou Awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine, pp. 14-17

 Page 15, ‘The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015—Press Release’, Nobelprize.org, 5 October 2015, online at: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/press.html

 Page 15, Tu Youyou, ‘The discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) and gifts from Chinese medicine’, Nature Medicine, vol.17 (2011), pp.1217–1220, online at: http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v17/n10/full/nm.2471.html

Page 15, Cindy Hao, ‘Lasker Award Rekindles Debate Over Artemisinin’s Discovery’, Science, 29 September 2011, online at: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/09/lasker-award-rekindles-debate-over-artemisinins-discovery

Page 15, Yi Rao, Runhong Li, and Daqing Zhang,  ‘New Drugs from Ancient Chinese Remedies: Unsung heroes in Unusual Times’, ScienceNet.cn, 13 September 2011, online at: http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=2237&do=blog&id=485860

Page 15, Chen Tingyi陈廷一, ‘Artemisinin—Tu Youyou and the Nobel Prize’ “中国之蒿——屠呦呦与诺贝尔奖”, Beijing Daily, 12 April 2016, online at: http://bjrb.bjd.com.cn/html/2016-04/12/content_25025.htm

Page 16, Jane Perlez, ‘Q. and A.: Tu Youyou on Being Awarded the Nobel Prize’, The New York Times, 9 October 2015, online at: http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/10/09/tu-youyou-nobel-prize-malaria/

Page 16, ‘Professor: “three without” scientist Tu Youyou wins Nobel Prize, beating the academician system’ “教授:“三无”科学家屠呦呦获诺奖拷问院士制度”, 6 October 2015, online at: http://news.sina.com.cn/c/nd/2015-10-06/doc-ifximeyv2796091.shtml

Chapter 1: Under the Dome, pp. 18-38

See Jane Golley and Xin Meng, ‘Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households’, Energy Economics, vol.34, no.6 (11/2-12): 1864–1872: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jane_Golley/publication/256967923_Income_inequality_and_carbon_dioxide_emissions_The_case_of_Chinese_urban_households/links/0deec529808d0ceffd000000.pdf

For more information on COP21 Agreement, see: http://www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/more-details-about-the-agreement/

For more information on the National Development and Reform Commission’s initiative, One Belt One Road (OBOR), see: http://en.ndrc.gov.cn/newsrelease/201503/t20150330_669367.html

Forum: The Stock Market Crash, pp. 50-55

Page 51, For further information, see David Wertime, ‘Is the Shanghai Stock Market Bubble Finally Bursting?’, 29 May 2015, online at: https://www.chinafile.com/reporting-opinion/media/shanghai-stock-market-bubble-finally-bursting; ‘Wife forces husband to sell off shares and buy apartment to dodge post-Dragon Boat Festival slump’ “老婆逼老公清仓买楼躲过端午节前暴跌”, 30 June 2015, online at: http://news.sohu.com/20150620/n415366430.shtml; and ‘Entire population is speculating more frantically than in ’06 —  a reminder: not everyone makes money’ “全民炒股比06年更疯狂 提醒:不是人人赚钱”, 25 April 2015, online at: http://finance.sina.com.cn/money/lczx/20150425/140222044420.shtml

Page 53, Austin Ramzy, ‘Plunge in Chinese Stocks Leads to Bull Market for Gallows Humor’, The New York Times, 8 July 2015, online at: http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/07/08/plunge-in-chinese-stocks-leads-to-bull-market-for-gallows-humor/?rref=collection%2Fcolumn%2Fsinosphere

Forum: The Internationalisation of the RMB, pp. 60-63

Page 63, See ‘RMB Tracker January 2016’, Swift, 28 January 2016, online at: https://www.swift.com/file/22436/download?token=bZjzKEJk

Chapter 2: The Fog of Law, pp. 64-90

 Page 67, Chris Buckley, ‘Xi Jinping’s “Four Comprehensives” Give Shape to a Crowded Agenda’, The New York Times, 1 March 2015, online at: http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/01/the-evolution-of-xi-jinpings-four-comprehensives/

Page 69, Willy Lam, ‘China’s Anti-Graft Campaign in Review’, China Brief, Volume 15 Issue 23, 7 December 2015, online at: http://www.jamestown.org/programs/chinabrief

Page 69, Brian Spegele, ‘China Anticorruption Cases Have Quadrupled Since 2013, Study Says’, The Wall Street Journal, 11 December 2015, online at: http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2015/12/11/china-anticorruption-cases-have-quadrupled-since-2013-study-says/

Page 71, The capital offences taken off the table include smuggling weapons or ammunition, smuggling nuclear materials, smuggling counterfeit money, counterfeiting, investment fraud and fraudulent fundraising, organizing prostitution, forcing females into prostitution, obstructing military affairs, and spreading rumours and undermining morale during wartime.

Page 71, Yang Fan (translated by Luisetta Mudie), ‘China’s New Crimes Will Stifle Public Expression, Erode Channels of Complaint’, Radio Free Asia, 2 November 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/crime-11022015114416.html

Page 74, ‘Watchwords: Reading China Through its Party Vocabulary’, China Media Project, online at: http://cmp.hku.hk/watchwords2012/

Page 75, ‘Ding’an Court conducts public sentencing in Jinjiling Primary School’ “定安法院公判大会暨法律进学校走进金鸡岭小学”, hi.people.cn, 27 June 2015, online at: http://hi.people.com.cn/n/2015/0627/c231190-25380977.html

Page 75, Willy Wo-Lap Lam, ‘Xi Jinping Consolidates Power while Presiding Over Tilt Toward Ultra-Conservative Ideals’, China Brief, Volume 15, Issue 21, (2 November 2015), p. 3, online at: https://jamestown.org/program/xi-jinping-consolidates-power-while-presiding-over-tilt-toward-ultra-conservative-ideals/

Page 75, Ibid., p. 4

Page 77, David Bandurski, ‘The Shoe that Fits: “China’s Rule of Law” ’, China Media Project, 2 March 2015, online at: http://cmp.hku.hk/2015/02/03/38075/

Page 85, Yanmei Lin, ‘China’s First Environmental Public Interest Litigation: Green NGOs Win’, Asia Environmental Governance Blog, 30 October 2015, online at: http://asia-environment.vermontlaw.edu/2015/10/30/chinas-first-environmental-public-interest-litigation-green-ngos-win/

Page 85, Susan Finder, ‘China’s Master Plan for Remaking Its Courts’, The Diplomat, 26 March 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/03/chinas-master-plan-for-remaking-its-courts/

Page 86, Laura Zhou, ‘Former Minsheng Banking chief Mao Xiaofeng “had links to wives of fallen leaders” ’, South China Morning Post, 2 February 2015, online at: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1698869/former-minsheng-banking-chief-mao-xiaofeng-had-links-wives-fallen-leaders; see also, Minnie Chan and George Chen, ‘Probe into China Minsheng chief Mao Xiaofeng just tip of iceberg in banking world of corrupt alliances’, South China Morning Post, 31 January 2015, online at: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1697106/chinese-bankings-rising-star-mao-xiaofeng-faces-probe-over-links-ex

Page 86, ‘Chairman of Chinese Brokerage Goes Absent’, The Wall Street Journal, 23 January 2015, online at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/founder-securities-chairman-out-of-contact-1421987127; see also, ‘Foreign press: former chairman of the board of Founder Securities Lei Jie has already been released from prison’ “外媒:方正证券前董事长雷杰已获释”, Phoenix New Media, 25 November 2015, online at: http://finance.ifeng.com/a/20151125/14089701_0.shtml; ‘Death Threats and Dawn Raids: Welcome to China’s Anti-Graft Drive’, Bloomberg, 25 January 2015, online at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:r7_b9XuieREJ:www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-01-25/death-threats-dawn-raids-kindled-by-china-anti-corruption-drive&num=1&hl=en&gl=us&strip=1&vwsrc=0

Page 87, Vice president of Hua Xia Bank Wang Yaoting has been sacked for corrupt IT purchases’ “华夏银行副行长王耀庭落马或因IT采购腐败” http://finance.sina.com.cn/money/bank/bank_hydt/20150512/080322158589.shtml

Page 87, Tom Mitchell and Patti Waldmeir, ‘China Inc: The party vs the elite’, The Financial Times, 18 December 2015, online at: https://next.ft.com/content/4c788de0-a4af-11e5-a91e-162b86790c58

Page 87, Michael Gow, ‘Man Group China boss Li Yifei: “I wasn’t arrested, I was only meditating” ’, The Independent, 8 September 2016, online at:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/man-group-china-boss-li-yifei-i-wasnt-arrested-i-was-only-meditating-10490590.html; see also, Daniel Ren and Teddy Ng, ‘Man Group China chief Li Yifei back home after meeting with Chinese authorities’, South China Morning Post, 7 September 2015, online at: http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1855894/man-group-china-chief-back-home-after-meeting-chinese

Page 88, Kyoungwha Kim and Alfred Liu, ‘Chief of Biggest Chinese Broker Swept Up in Stock-Rout Probe’, Bloomberg, 15 September 2015, online at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:JGUF5zuQgrMJ:www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-15/citic-securities-chief-probed-for-insider-trading-xinhua-says+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us; see also, Lawrence Wright, Meng Meng, and Kang Lim, ‘Citic Securities says unable to contact two senior executives’, Reuters, 6 December 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-citic-securities-executives-idUSKBN0TP0EW20151206

Page 88, Gerry Shih, ‘Chinese brokerage Minzu says CEO missing’, Reuters, 27 September 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/china-minzu-idUSL1N11X08V20150927; see also, ‘Former chairman of Minzu Securities Zhao Dajian “missing” ’ “民族证券前董事长赵大建“失联” ”, The Beijing News, 28 September 2015, online at: http://www.bjnews.com.cn/finance/2015/09/28/379079.html

Page 89, Xie Yu, ‘Guosen Securities president found hanged amid investigation into stock market misconduct’, South China Morning Post, 24 October 2015, online at: http://www.scmp.com/business/china-business/article/1871559/guosen-securities-president-found-hanged

Page 89, Alex W. Palmer, ‘The Fall of China’s Hedge-Fund King’, The New York Times, 29 March 2016, online at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/03/magazine/the-fall-of-chinas-hedge-fund-king.html

Page 89, ‘Guotai Junan Unit Says Chairman Yim Fung Can’t Be Contacted’, Bloomberg, 23 November 2015, online at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-23/guotai-junan-international-says-chairman-yim-can-t-be-contacted; see also, ‘Hong Kong firm says missing chairman Yim Fung back at work’, bbc.com, 23 December 2015, online at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-35166286

Forum: Pollution Migrates to the West, pp. 94-99

Page 95, ‘Polluting the desert: how terrible it is?’ 沙漠污染有多可怕?, baike.com, 8 October 2014, online at: http://toutiao.baike.com/article-1571987.html

Page 96, ‘How to govern underground pollution?’ 地下排污, 如何治理?, blog.163.com, 26 February 2012, online at: http://blog.163.com/special/0012646O/underearthpollution.html

Page 96, ‘Desert abscess’ 沙漠里的“脓疮”, Tencent, 22 March 2013, online at: http://v.qq.com/page/a/7/0/a0012s5d670.html

Page 96, ‘Desert shame’ 沙漠之殇, The Beijing News, 6 September 2014, online at: http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2014-09/06/content_533715.htm?div=-1;  Shao Wenjie 邵文杰, ‘Why the Tengger industrial zone is incorrigible?’ 腾格里工业圆为何屡教不改, infzm.com, 12 September 2014, online at: http://www.infzm.com/content/104078

Page 97, ‘Inner Mongolia plans for environmental protection to stop Tengger Desert pollution’ 内蒙古安排部署生态环境保护工作, 处置腾格里污染物, Xinhua, 3 October 2014, online at: http://www.nmg.xinhuanet.com/xwzx/2014-10/03/c_1112709680.htm

Page 97, ‘The Supreme Procuratorate supervises four environmental pollution cases in Tengger Desert; four officials being investigated for suspected dereliction of duty’ 最高检挂牌督办4起腾格里沙漠污染环境案4公职人员涉嫌渎职犯罪被查, Xinhua, 22 May 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/legal/2015-05/22/c_127831851.htm

Page 97, ‘Tengger Desert’s first environmental pollution case verdict’ 腾格里沙漠污染首例环境污染案一审宣判, Legaldaily.com.cn, 7 May 2015, online at: http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/Court/content/2015-05/07/content_6072610.htm

Page 97, ‘Tengger Desert pollution: Do not always bother Uncle Xi’ 腾格里沙漠污染这种事,不要总是麻烦习大大, Guancha zhe, 5 October, 2014, online at: http://www.guancha.cn/politics/2014_10_05_273286.shtml

Page 97, Pollution migrates west 污染 “西迁”, NetEase, 9 September 2014, online at: http://news.163.com/14/0909/02/A5LUCN6B00014Q4P.html

Page 97, ‘Beijing closed down 326 polluting enterprises this year compared with the annual goal of 300’ 北京今年关停326家污染企业, 提前完成淘汰300家年度任务, Chinaso.com, 26 December 2015, online at: http://finance.chinaso.com/detail/20151226/1000200032880141451088227225557402_1.html

Page 98, ‘Ministry of Environment refines coal control target in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and Shandong provinces; obvious trend to westward migration of power plants’ 环境部细化京津冀鲁控煤目标, 火电厂西迁趋势明显, nbd.com.cn, 23 September 2013, online at: http://www.nbd.com.cn/articles/2013-09-23/775190.html

Page 98, ‘Over hundred coal-fired power plants approved in 25 provinces in first 11 months of 2015’ 前11个月25省市核准火电项目过百, EMCA, 10 December 2015, online at: http://news.emca.cn/n/20151210101646.html; ‘Optimistic investment on coal-fired power projects; explosive growth of coal-fired power plant approval’火电项目投资回暖, 火电审批爆发式增长, Ocn.com.cn, 16 January 2016, online at: http://www.ocn.com.cn/chanjing/201601/lcuci11120026.shtml; ‘Inner Mongolia approved 17 coal-fired power plants’ 内蒙古核准17个火电项目, Bjx.com.cn, 6 September 2015, online at:  http://news.bjx.com.cn/html/20150906/660186.shtml

Page 98, ‘Listen to a “green life story” of the boss of coal-fired industries at Togtog power plant of China Datang Corporation’ 走进大唐托电: 倾听火电老大的“环保人生”, People.cn, 12 August 2015, online at, http://nm.people.com.cn/n/2015/0812/c196689-25953800.html

Chapter 3: Intellectual Hygiene, pp. 100-128

Page 104, Xinhua, ‘Yuan Guiren: University teachers must defend the Three Bottom Lines of politics, law and ethics’ 袁贵仁:高校教师必须守好政治、法律、道德三条底线, Xinhuanet.com, 29 January 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/2015-01/29/c_1114183715.htm. Xinhua published a different perspective on Yuan’s speech in English the following day: ‘Education minister warns against “Western values” in colleges’, English.news.cn, 30 January 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2015-01/30/c_133958419.htm

Page 104, Xinhua, ‘Yuan Guiren: University teachers must defend the Three Bottom Lines of politics, law and ethics’ 袁贵仁:高校教师必须守好政治、法律、道德三条底线, Xinhuanet.com, 29 January 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/2015-01/29/c_1114183715.htm

Page 105, General Office and the State Council of the Chinese Communist Party中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅, ‘An Opinion on Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideological Work in Higher Education Under the New Circumstances’ 关于进一步加强和改进新形势下高校宣传思想工作的意见, Xinhuanet, 19 January 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/2015-01/19/c_1114051345.htm. An independent English translation of this document appears at the China Copyright and Media website, published 16 February 2015, online at: https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2015/01/19/opinions-concerning-further-strengthening-and-improving-propaganda-and-ideology-work-in-higher-education-under-new-circumstances/

Page 105, CCP Central Organisation Department, CCP Central Publicity Department, CCP Committee of the Ministry of Education中共中央组织部 中共中央宣传部 中共教育部党组, ‘Sixteen Suggestions of the Chinese Communist Party on Strengthening Ideological and Political Work among Young Teachers in Higher Education’ 中共16条意见加强高校青年教师思想政治工作, People.cn, 28 May 2013, online at: http://edu.people.com.cn/n/2013/0528/c1053-21643996.html

Page 105, Besides a wide range of expert commentaries, the controversy surrounding Yuan’s speech also attracted responses from Chinese students overseas. An article by Grace Zhang exemplifies the depth and scope of background information about Yuan’s speech that interested readers were able to access online. ‘教育部部长袁贵仁反对西方价值观念进入课堂背后的思想考虑’, The Journal of Political Risk, 10 July 2015, online at: http://www.jpolrisk.com/what-the-chinese-education-minister-is-really-trying-to-say/

Page 105, Shen Kui’s post circulated under the title ‘Shen Kui poses three questions to Yuan Guiren’ 沈岿:三问袁贵仁. The translation here is by Donald Clarke, ‘Shen Kui and his three questions’, China Law Prof Blog, 31 January 2015, online at: http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/china_law_prof_blog/2015/01/shen-kui-and-his-three-questions.html

Page 105, Translated excerpts appear in ‘China’s Search Engines Censor Searches for Scholar Who Questioned Education Minister’s Anti-Western Values Stance’, Fei Chang Dao, 16 February 2015, online at: http://blog.feichangdao.com/2015/02/chinas-search-engines-censor-searches.html

Page 106, A commentary published on the national broadcaster CCTV’s website claimed that many of the commentators who referred to Yuan’s speech as ‘the Four Absolute No’s’ distorted the minister’s words, by wilfully misrepresenting his injunction against ‘the wrong Western values’ to portray him as a xenophobe who rejected all Western values. Dugu jiuduan 独孤九段, ‘Absolutely prohibit the use of materials on Western values in the classroom’? This was not what Yuan Guiren said,’ ‘决不让西方价值观教材进课堂’?袁贵仁原话不是这么说的, CCTV.com, 6 February 2015, online at: http://m.news.cntv.cn/2015/02/06/ARTI1423199157987218.shtml

Page 106, ‘CASS Institute Official: Punish Those Who Questioned Education Minister’, Fei Chang Dao, 17 February 2015, online at: http://blog.feichangdao.com/2015/02/cass-institute-official-punish-those.html

Page 106, Screenshots taken on 2 February 2015 published on the Fei Chang Dao blog showed that searches for ‘Shen Kui’ and ‘Yuan Guiren’ had been blocked. However, either name returned results when it was searched separately. ‘China’s Search Engines Censor Searches for Scholar Who Questioned Education Minister’s Anti-Western Values Stance,’ Fei Chang Dao, 16 February 2015, online at: http://blog.feichangdao.com/2015/02/chinas-search-engines-censor-searches.html

Page 106, Qian Gang, ‘Parsing the Public Opinion Struggle’, China Media Project, 24 September 2013, online at: http://cmp.hku.hk/2013/09/24/34085/

Page 107, Minxin Pei, ‘China’s War on Western Values’, Project Syndicate, 10 February 2015, online at: http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/china-censorship-economic-prospects-by-minxin-pei-2015-02; Hu Shaojiang, ‘Re-ideologizing Chinese Universities’, translated by Diana Zhang, China Change, 10 February 2015, online at: http://chinachange.org/2015/02/10/re-ideologizing-chinese-universities/; Siwen 思闻, ‘Culture Minister Yuan Guiren’s “Four Absolute No’s” are applicable to him’, 教育部长袁贵仁的四个绝不,对他也适用, kdnet.net, 9 March 2015, online at: http://club.kdnet.net/dispbbs.asp?boardid=44&id=10756037 

Page 107, See Flora Sapio, ‘Carl Schmitt in China’, China Story, 7 October 2015, online at: https://www.thechinastory.org/2015/10/carl-schmitt-in-china/

Page 107, Zhou Yu, ‘Chinese university revives research on official ideology to head off suspicious values’, Global Times, 1 June 2015, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/924726.shtml

Page 107, ‘The fourth national forum of Marxist institute directors within higher education opens at Peking University’, 第四届全国高校马克思主义学院院长论坛在北京大学召开, People.cn, 2 April 2015, online at: http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2015/0402/c40531-26791082.html; Zhou Yu, ‘Chinese university revives research on official ideology to head off suspicious values’, Global Times, 1 June 2015, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/924726.shtml; ‘Twenty-first century Peking University is once again a pinnacle of Marxist studies’ 北京大学21世纪再度成为研究马克思主义的高地, Xinhuanet, 11 October 2015, online at: http://edu.people.com.cn/n/2015/1012/c1053-27685253.html; Didi Kirsten Tatlow, ‘China Seeks to Promote the ‘Right’ Western Philosophy: Marxism’, The New York Times, 23 September 2015, reposted at https://u.osu.edu/mclc/2015/09/24/china-promotes-marxism/

Page 107, BBC (Mandarin Chinese edition), ‘Controversy ensues over Yuan Guiren’s former remark that he did not fear Western materials entering China,’ 袁贵仁被揭曾称不怕引进外国资源引热议, BBC, 31 January 2015, online at: http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2015/01/150131_china_education_yuanguiren

Page 108, ‘The Minister of Education calls on universities to defend the political baseline and ensure a clean and upright atmosphere in classrooms’ 教育部长:高校要守好政治底线 确保课堂风清气正, People.cn, 29 January 2015, online at: http://edu.people.com.cn/n/2015/0129/c1053-26475290.html

Page 108, As translated in Tricia Starks, Body Soviet: Propaganda, Hygiene, and the Revolutionary State, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009, p.3.

Page 109, Ministry of Culture notice, 10 August 2015, online at: http://www.mcprc.gov.cn/whzx/whyw/201508/t20150810_457407.html

Page 109, ‘China bans immoral songs online’, English.news.cn, 10 August 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-08/10/c_134501210.htm

Page 109, ‘China widens ban on immoral songs, supervision tightened’, English.news.cn, 12 August 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-08/12/c_134508535.htm

Page 109, ‘Stars respond to the removal of 120 vulgar online songs—DJ Luo Baiji: Getting banned is also good’ “众星回应120首低俗网络歌曲被下架 罗百吉:被禁也好”, News.youth.cn, 11 August 2015, online at: http://news.youth.cn/yl/201508/t20150811_6987198.htm

Page 109, View online comments about the banned songs: https://twitter.com/majunlive/status/630936099485954048

Page 109, Japanese anime ban: ‘Ministry of Culture announces first batch of Japanese anime to be put on ‘the black list’—38 films added to the blacklist’ “文化部公布首批网络动漫”黑名单” 38部产品上黑榜”, People.cn, 8 June 2015, online at: http://culture.people.com.cn/n/2015/0608/c172318-27121659.html; ‘Ministry of Culture formally announces illegal animation list: 38 animations are under investigation’ “文化部正式公布违规动画名单 查处38部动画”, Tencent, 9 June 2015, online at: http://comic.qq.com/a/20150609/017507.htm

Page 109, ‘Spotlight Back on Xi’s “Positive Energy” in Arts’, China Digital Times, 15 October 2015, online at: http://chinadigitaltimes.net/2015/10/spotlight-back-on-xis-positive-energy-in-arts/; Patrick Boehler and Vanessa Piao, ‘Xi Jinping’s Speech on the Arts Is Released, One Year Later’, The New York Times, 15 October 2015, online at: http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/10/15/xi-jinping-speech-arts-culture/?_r=0

Page 109, ‘Xinhua Insight: China’s Xi points way for arts’, Xinhuanet.com, 16 October 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-10/16/c_133719778.htm

Page 110, Echo Zhao, ‘The 3 Generals of Chinese Sci Fi’, The World of Chinese, 30 December 2012, online at: http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2012/12/the-3-generals-of-chinese-sci-fi/

Page 110, Judith Amory, ‘Translator’s Introduction’, Baptism, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2007, pp.ix-x.

Page 111, ‘Sci-fi writers urged to play a part in national revival’, Xinhuanet, 14 September 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-09/14/c_134623397.htm

Page 111, Chen Qiufan, trans. Carmen Yiling Yan and Ken Liu, ‘The Smog Society’, Lightspeed, August 5, 2015, online at: http://www.lightspeedmagazine.com/fiction/the-smog-society/; Ma Boyong, trans. Ken Liu, ‘City of Silence’, World SF Blog, November-December 2011.

Page 111, See for example, Renditions, no. 77/78 (Spring and Autumn of 2012), guest edited by Mingwei Song.

Page 111, The document appears in English translation here: https://chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2015/01/19/opinions-concerning-further-strengthening-and-improving-propaganda-and-ideology-work-in-higher-education-under-new-circumstances/

Page 112, The magazine’s title consists of two terms associated with China’s civilizational origins, Yan and Huang being the names of China’s mythological founders, and Spring and Autumn being the period of political turbulence in which Confucius lived. As C. A. Yeung puts it, the title is ‘an allusion to the great Confucian tradition of invoking history, as a way of admonishing the Head of State against undesirable influences’ and thereby to use history ‘particularly the history of Party founders, to set a standard for governance.’ https://underthejacaranda.wordpress.com/2008/11/18/the-unrelenting-du-daocheng-refuses-to-retire/

Page 113, The cover story for Yanhuang Chunqiu’s September 2008 issue was a personal essay by Sun Zhen titled ‘My relationship with the Sichuan Party Secretary in the late stages of the Cultural Revolution’. The magazine and Sun not only defied the official ban on discussions of Zhao’s legacy, it contradicted the official verdict of Zhao as a failed leader who ‘made significant errors when carrying out ideological and practical tasks.’ The magazine’s supervisory body, the Ministry of Culture, demanded Du Daozheng’s resignation as editor-in-chief. Du refused initially but relinquished the editorial role in February 2009 to continue solely as the magazine’s registered proprietor. http://cmp.hku.hk/2008/11/22/1378/; http://www.thechinabeat.org/?p=297

Page 114, Qiao Long, ‘Radio Free Asia exclusive: Forced cancellation of Yanhuang chunqiu reception: Hu Qili, Tian Jiyun and other former senior Party officials will not be able to attend’, RFA独家:炎黄春秋新春联谊会被迫取消 胡启立田纪云等前中共高层无法出席, Radio Free Asia, 17 March 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/meiti/ql3-03172015100248.html. See also http://minzhuzhongguo.org/ArtShow.aspx?AID=51644; http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1742290/chinese-political-magazine-yanhuang-chunqiu-forced-call-annual-dinner

Page 114, An unnamed source quoted in a Radio Free Asia report of 27 April 2015 stated that in April, retired officials from Xinhua News and the Party’s Central Commission for Discipline Inspection visited Yang at his home to demand his resignation. They acceded to Yang’s request for the resignation to take effect from 1 July 2015. Qiao Long, ‘Chinese Magazine Warned by Censors, Future Now Uncertain’, Radio Free Asia, 27 April 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/warned-04272015103205.html

Page 115, A translation of the interview with Du Daozheng appears in David Bandurski, ‘Du Daozheng on China’s past and future’, China Media Project, 8 November 2011, online at: http://cmp.hku.hk/2011/11/08/17050/

Page 116, Cheng Li, ‘Intra-Party Democracy in China: Should We Take It Seriously?, Chinese Leadership Monitor, No.30 (2009), http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2009/11/fall-china-democracy-li/fall_china_democracy_li.pdf

Page 116, Ibid.

Page 116, Beijing Times, ‘The media names three Party factions: Jiang Jiemin et al are the “Petroleum Faction” ’ “媒体为党内三大帮派命名:蒋洁敏等是“石油帮”, Xinhua.net, 4 January 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2015-01/04/c_127355066.htm

Page 118, Minni Chan, ‘Order to ‘realign’ outspoken liberal magazine will end its independence, says publisher’, South China Morning Post, 19 September 2014, online at:

http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1595608/order-realign-outspoken-liberal-magazine-will-end-its-independence-says

Page 118, Yang Jisheng, ‘Two open letters to mark my departure as editor-in-chief of Yanhuang chunqiu’ 离开《炎黄春秋》总编岗位的两封公开信, Boxun.com, 16 July 2015, online at: http://www.boxun.com/news/gb/china/2015/07/201507160051.shtml#.Vsw4xvl96Uk

Page 119, Xue Zhibai薛之白, ‘Army paper blasts Yanhuang chunqiu and makes waves’  “军报炮轰《炎黄春秋》掀波澜”, Zaobao.sg, 4 June 2015, http://www.zaobao.com.sg/special/zbo/commentary/story20150604-487879

Page 119, The post read: ‘On the occasion of the coming new year, I extend my greetings to all the PLA commanders and fighters, armed police officers and militia reservists on behalf of the CPC Central Committee and the CMC. I hope that we will all endeavour to achieve the goal of enforcing the army and fulfilling the missions efficiently, making new greater contributions to realize the dream of China and the dream of a strong army!’, Sina English, 28 December 2015, online at: http://english.sina.com/china/2015/1227/876835.html

Page 120, ‘Dalai Lama concedes he may be the last’, BBC, 17 December 2014, online at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-30510018

Page 120, Christopher Bodeen, ‘Atheistic China claims ‘right to reincarnate’ Dalai Lama, Salon, 13 May 2015, online at: http://www.salon.com/2015/03/13/atheistic_china_claims_right_to_reincarnate_dalai_lama/

Page 120, ] Nicholas Kristof, ‘Dalai Lama Gets Mischievous’, New York Times, 16 July 2015, online at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/16/opinion/nicholas-kristof-dalai-lama-gets-mischievous.html?_r=0

Page 120, ‘Zhu Weiqun: Buddhist reincarnation is the decision of the state’, Global Times 环球时报, 30 November 2015, online at: http://opinion.huanqiu.com/1152/2015-11/8069191.html

Page 121, Yang Jisheng, ‘Two open letters on the occasion of my departure as editor-in-chief of Yanhuang chunqiu离开《炎黄春秋》总编岗位的两封公开信, Boxun.com, 16 July 2015, online at: http://www.boxun.com/news/gb/china/2015/07/201507160051.shtml#.VtU-_Pl96Uk

Page 122, Lei Yi, ‘The hundred-year solitude of Chinese intellectuals’ 中国知识分子的百年孤寂, lecture transcript, Veritas, 10 August 2015, online at: http://dxw.ifeng.com/shilu/jiangtangshilu237/1.shtml

Page 122, Ibid.

Page 122, On Zhang Shenfu’s life, see Vera Schwarcz, Time for Telling Truth is Running Out: Conversations with Zhang Shenfu, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992

Page 122, Lei Yi, ‘The hundred-year solitude of Chinese intellectuals’, http://dxw.ifeng.com/shilu/jiangtangshilu237/1.shtml

Page 123, Xi Jinping discusses “Three Stricts and Three Genuines” – a compilation of important statements since the Eighteenth Party Congress’ “习近平论“三严三实”——十八大以来重要论述摘编”, first published in Party Building 党建, 4 June 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2015-06/04/c_127878723.htm 

Page 123, People’s Daily, ‘Political Bureau of the CCP Central Committee holds its Democratic Life Meeting; Party General Secretary Xi Jinping presides and delivers a key speech’ “中共中央政治局召开专题民主生活会 中共中央总书记习近平主持会议并发表重要讲话”, www.cpc.new.cn, 30 December 2015, online at: http://dangjian.people.com.cn/n1/2015/1230/c117092-27993347.html

Page 123, The expression first appeared as the title of an article by Yu Yongjun, published on the People’s Daily website on 25 October 2013 (人民日报纵横:好人主义要不得  http://opinion.people.com.cn/n/2013/1025/c1003-23320405.html)

Page 123, Liu Shaoqi, ‘How to be a good Communist’, first published in Chinese July 1989, English translation in Selected Works of Liu Shaoqi, Volume One (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1984), available at: https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/liu-shaoqi/1939/how-to-be/ch06.htm 

Page 124, Wen Yan文岩, ‘Raising the standard of Communist self-cultivation is a perennial lesson in Party construction — revisiting Liu Shaoqi’s How to be a good Communist’ “提高党员修养是党的建设的永久性课题——重温刘少奇《论共产党员的修养》”, 9 July 2015, People.cn, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0709/c1001-27275286.html

Page 124, The removal in February 2008 of ‘revolutionary’ from the title ‘revolutionary martyr’, posthumously awarded to individuals who died in service to the nation, marked a key moment in the erosion of pre-1949 and Maoist Communist rhetoric. See Jane Macartney, ‘The Revolution is Dead’, The Times, 22 February 2008, online at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3412469.ece

Page 124, Su Chaoli 苏超莉, ‘Realising the “Three Stricts and Three Genuines” strengthens the cultivation of Party spirit’ “践行“三严三实” 加强党性修养”, cpcnews.cn, 21 October 2015, online at: http://dangjian.people.com.cn/n/2015/1021/c117092-27722862.html

Page 124, Xinhua, ‘Xi Jinping delivers a key speech at the opening of the conference on Mass Line Education and Practice Campaign’ “党的群众路线教育实践活动工作会议召开 习近平发表重要讲话”, 18 June 2013, online at: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2013/0618/c64094-21884638.html

Page 126, ‘Taking stock: Xi Jinping’s 20 new catchwords of 2015’ “盘点:2015年习近平的20个‘新热词’ ”, People’s Daily 人民日报, 28 December 2015, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2015/1228/c1001-27984291.html

Page 126, Paul Burgman Jr., Andrew M. Friedle, ‘China’s Political Culture is Paralyzing its Economy’, The National Interest, 2 May 2016, online at: http://nationalinterest.org/feature/chinas-political-culture-paralyzing-its-economy-16019

Page 126, ‘Since the 18th Party Congress, Xi Jinping has mentioned “new normal” over 160 times’ 18大以来,习近平提及“新常态”160余次, People’s Daily 人民日报, 12 March 2015, online at: http://news.ifeng.com/a/20160312/47804216_0.shtml

Page 127, Zheping Huang, ‘China’s Communist Party has banned its members from meeting alone or criticizing the Party’, Quartz, 28 October 2015, online at: http://qz.com/530534/chinas-communist-party-has-banned-its-members-from-meeting-alone-or-criticizing-the-party/

Forum: Cleaning Up, pp. 132-138

 Page 132, ‘People’s Daily Wechat: outside the draft, what did Xi Jinping say at the literature and arts forum?’ “人民日报微信:通稿之外习近平在文艺座谈会上还讲了什么?”, cpc.news.cn, 16 October 2014, online at: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2014/1016/c64094-25848060.html

Page 132, David Volodzko, ‘China’s Confucius Institutes and the Soft War’, The Diplomat, 8 July 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/07/chinas-confucius-institutes-and-the-soft-war/

Forum: A New Cultural Ecology?, pp. 138-143

Page 141, Ou Ning, in Beth Walker, ‘Stemming the Tide of Rural Urban Migration’, China Dialogue, 22 August 2013. https://www.chinadialogue.net/books/6312-Stemming-the-tide-of-rural-urban-migration/en

Page 142, Xu Wu,‘The Farmhouse Joy (nongjiale) Movement in China’s Ethnic Minority Villages’, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 15:2 (2014), 158–177.

Page 142, Jie Chen, Nation Ethnicity and Cultural Strategies: Three Waves of Ethnic Representation in Post-1949 China, PhD dissertation, Rutgers University (2008), 162–163.

Chapter 4: The Crystal-clear Waters of the Chinese Internet, pp. 144-162

 Page 149, Geremie R. Barmé and Sang Ye, ‘The Great Firewall of China’ Wired, 6 January 1997, online at: http://www.wired.com/1997/06/china-3/

Page 150, Kai Ge 开可 and Yang Yue 杨月, ‘习近平提五大理念统领网信领域,指点中国“第五疆域”建设’, The Paper, 22 April 2016, online at: http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1459594_1

Page 151,学者热议:李克强提的“互联网+”是个啥概念?’, people.cn, 5 March 2015, online at: http://scitech.people.com.cn/n/2015/0305/c1007-26644489.html

Page 151,‘公安部整治网络谣言 查造谣197人关停网络账号165个’, chinanews.com, 31 August 2015, online at: http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2015/08-31/7497232.shtml

Page 155,‘网信办工作日常曝光,国考季写给师弟师妹的一封信’, Weixin, 18 October 2015, online at: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA5OTA2OTU5Mg==&mid=400053976&idx=1&sn=4d15c2e4dcbcde2deb546e6ada4eb301&3rd=MzA3MDU4NTYzMw==&scene=6#rd

Page 155, C. Custer, ‘Baidu’s food delivery service Waimai looking to raise $500m: report’, Tech in Asia, 30 December 2015, online at: https://www.techinasia.com/report-baidus-o2o-food-delivery-service-waimai-raise-us500m

Page 155, Steven Millward, ‘WeChat still unstoppable, grows to 697m active users’, Tech in Asia, 17 March 2016, online at: https://www.techinasia.com/wechat-697-million-monthly-active-users

Page 156, Taylor Hall, ‘China Outstrips Rest of the World in Creating Startups, Report Shows’, Bloomberg, 23 November 2015, online at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-11-23/china-outstrips-rest-of-the-world-in-creating-startups-report-shows

Page 157, Bitcoin Forum ‘Three months living in a multi-petahash BTC mine in Kangding, Sichuan, China’, online at: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1072474.0

Page 158, Wuzhen Summit website: http://www.wicwuzhen.cn/

Page 159,‘方可成:“外交”是中国举办“世界互联网大会”的本质’, Initium Media, 18 December 2015, online at: https://theinitium.com/article/20151218-opinion-world-internet-conference-foreign-policy-fangkecheng/

Page 159, James T. Areddy, ‘China Delivers Midnight Internet Declaration — Offline’, The Wall Street Journal, 21 November 2014, online at: http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2014/11/21/china-delivers-midnight-internet-declaration-offline/

Forum: The Expansion of the United Front Under Xi Jinping, pp. 166-177

Page 167, ‘Xi Urges Strengthening of United Front’, The China Daily, 21 May 2015, online at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-05/21/content_20785494.htm  (Accessed 22 December 2015)

Page 169, Bo Zhiyue, ‘What one new CCP appointment tells us about Chinese politics’, The Diplomat, 20 April 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/04/what-one-new-ccp-appointment-tells-us-about-chinese-politics/

Page 171, Qiao Long (translated by Luisetta Mudie), ‘China Slaps Travel Ban on Dissident Writer, Tibet Scholar’, Radio Free Asia, 22 December 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/travel-12222015110252.html

Page 171, Sui-Lee Wee and Ben Blanchard, ‘China denounces Dalai Lama’s ‘sympathy’ for Islamic State’, Reuters, 9 December 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tibet-idUSKBN0TS0D220151209

Page 171, Megha Rajagopalan and Ben Blanchard, ‘It’s up to Dalai Lama whether he’ll be reborn, Buddhist leader says’, Reuters, 16 April 2016, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-tibet-idUSKBN0N70B720150416

Page 171, Gerry Groot, ‘The Contradictions of Developmentalism and the Chinese Party-State’s Goal of Ethnic Harmony: the case of Xinjiang’, in Curt Andressen (ed.), China’s Changing Economy: Trends, Impacts and the Future, London: Routledge, 2016.

Page 172, James Leibold, ‘Xinjiang Work Forum Marks New Policy of “Ethnic Mingling” ’, China Brief, Volume: 14 Issue: 12, online at: https://jamestown.org/program/xinjiang-work-forum-marks-new-policy-of-ethnic-mingling/#.VoMz1GOLXOk

Page 172, Tom Phillips, ‘Chinese newspaper editor sacked for criticising Beijing’s “war on terror” ’, The Guardian, 2 November 2015, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/02/chinese-newspaper-editor-sacked-for-criticising-beijings-war-on-terror

Page 173, Xin Lin and Hai Nan (translated by Luisetta Mudie), ‘Warning Over Religious Believers in Chinese Communist Party Ranks’, Radio Free Asia, 25 May 2015, http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/china-religion-05252015112309.html 

Page 173, Yang Fan, Ka Pa, and Lin Jing (translated by Luisetta Mudie), ‘China Detains Two Activists as NGO Crackdown Widens,’ Radio Free Asia, 15 June 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/crackdown-06152015102239.html

Page 173, Dan Southerland, ‘Zhejiang’s Christians Are Resisting a Campaign Against Church Crosses’, Radio Free Asia, 11 August 2015, online at: http://www.rfa.org/english/commentaries/east-asia-beat/china-churches-08112015122240.html

Page 174, David Lague, Paul Mooney, and Benjamin Kang Lim, ‘China co-opts a Buddhist sect in global effort to smear Dalai Lama’, Reuters, 21 December 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/china-dalailama/; see also Jonathan Luxmoore, ‘China’s Catholics fear new anti-Christian campaign’, National Catholic Reporter, 4 December 2015, online at: http://ncronline.org/print/news/global/chinas-catholics-fear-new-anti-christian-campaign 

Page 175, John Fitzgerald, ‘Why Values Matter in Australia’s Relations with China’, The Asan Forum, 13 June 2014, online at: http://www.theasanforum.org/why-values-matter-in-australias-relations-with-china/ 

Page 175, Adrian Morrow, Adam Radwanski, and Steven Chase, ‘Liberal MPP Michael Chan calls CSIS concerns about China ties “ludicrous” ’, The Globe and Mail, 17 June 2015, online at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/liberal-mpp-michael-chan-calls-csis-concerns-about-china-ties-ludicrous/article25012265/; see also Craig Offman, ‘Chinese Canadian Post editor says she was fired over Chan critique’, The Globe and Mail, 5 August 2015, online at: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/chinese-canadian-post-editor-says-she-was-fired-over-chan-critique/article25855965/

Page 177, Louisa Lim, ‘The Thugs of Mainland China’, The New Yorker, 8 October 2014, online at: http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/thugs-mainland-china-hong-kong-protests

Page 177, ‘Xi Urges Strengthening of United Front’, The China Daily, 21 May 2015, online at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-05/21/content_20785494.htm

 Page 177, ‘Chinese United Front puts news on your mobile’, The China Daily, 9 September 2015, online at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-09/09/content_21832598.htm

Chapter 5: The City That Ate China, pp. 178-201

Page 181, Dai Qing (ed.), ‘The Heritage of Beijing Water’, The China Heritage Quarterly, No. 16 (December 2008), online at: www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/editorial.php?issue=016

Page 183, ‘Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei Cooperative Development Plan is adopted’ “京津冀协同发展规划纲要获通过”, People.cn, 1 May 2015, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0501/c1001-26935006.html

Page 183, Ian Johnson, ‘As Beijing Becomes a Supercity, the Rapid Growth Brings Pains’, The New York Times, 19 July 2015, online at: www.nytimes.com/2015/07/20/world/asia/in-china-a-supercity-rises-around-beijing.html

Page 184, R. Kent Guy, Qing Governors and their Provinces, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010, p. 199.

Page 185, ‘While the master plan of Jing-Jin-Jin is about to be unveiled, Xi Jinping personally assures that Beijing should be the sole centre’ “京津冀规划出炉在即习近平亲”拍板”北京为唯一中心”, Takungpao, online at: http://news.takungpao.com/mainland/focus/2015-04/2980632.html

Page 187, ‘China names 10 most polluted cities‘, The China Daily, 12 February 2015, online at: www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-02/02/content_19466412.htm

Page 188, Zhu Liu, ‘China’s Carbon Emissions Report 2015’, Cambridge, Mass.: Report for Sustainability Science Program, Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government, Harvard Kennedy School, Energy Technology Innovation Policy research group, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, May 2015, online at:  http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/25417/chinas_carbon_emissions_report_2015.html

Page 188, A 2015 study by CICERO, Nikkei, 22 May 2015, online at: http://zh.cn.nikkei.com/politicsaeconomy/politicsasociety/14442-20150522.html

Page 188, China’s Iron and Steel Industry amid the Financial Crisis, Hong Kong: KPMG, 2009, online at: www.kpmg.com/CN/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/China-iron-steel-200906.pdf

Page 188, Wen Kui and Zhu Erjuan (eds.), Report on Development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province (2013): Measurement of Carrying Capacity and Countermeasures, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2015, pp. 15-16.

Page 189,China declares war on water, land, and air pollution’ “中国“水陆空”三位一体向污染宣战”, Xinhuanet.com, 5 March 2014, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-03/05/c_119620880.htm; see also, ‘Supporting the war on pollution, national environmental protection media mobilizes launch for green Hebei’ “向污染宣战 全国环保媒体总动员绿色河北启动”, People.cn, 30 December 2014, online at: http://fj.people.com.cn/changting/n/2014/1230/c355599-23391511.html

Page 189, Hebei governor on the role of officials.

Page 192, ‘Beijing’s “poverty belt” raises alarm’, South China Morning Post [Hong Kong], 27 February 2006, online at: www.scmp.com/article/538193/beijings-poverty-belt-raises-alarm

Page 192, ‘China’s first Poverty Day, list of 592 national poverty counties’ “中国首个扶贫日, 592个国家级贫困县名单”, People’s Daily, 24 October 2014, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1017/c1026-25854065.html

Page 193, 庞清辉Pang Qinghui, ‘The Poverty belt around Beijing and why “great trees don’t grow grass” ’, “环首都贫困带为何 “大树底下不长草” 中国新闻周刊”, China Newsweek, No. 9 (2013), online at: www.qikan.com/article/3DF17482-42E5-47DC-AFCE-1DD6AC3D7F0B

 Page 193, Christoph Peisert and Eva Sternfeld, ‘Quenching Beijing’s thirst: The need for integrated management for the endangered Miyun reservoir’, China Environment Series, 7 (2005): 33–45.

 Page 193,The poverty belt around Beijing — 10 years on the long road out of poverty’ “环首都贫困带10年脱贫路漫漫”, Changjiang Daily, 26 February 2015, online at: http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/dfjj/20150216/041821560740.shtml

 Page 193, ‘Changes to the Administrative Divisions of China’, a data matrix of the Changes to the Administrative Divisions of China, a project of the China Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney and the Center for Research on the Chinese Administrative Divisions, East China Normal University, Shanghai.

 Page 196, ‘The Positioning of Tongzhou New City Upgraded to “Sub-center of Beijing” ’, Tongzhou New City News, 4 July 2012, online at: http://xctz.bjtzh.gov.cn/n5560366/n7925814/n7925952/c7978094/content.html

Page 197, Ibid.

 Page 199, Willy Wo-Lap Lam, Chinese Politics in the Era of Xi Jinping: Renaissance, Reform, or Retrogression?, New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 67.

 Page 201, Isabel Hilton, ‘China’s Urban Dilemma’, China Dialogue, 11 November 2013, online at: www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/6459-China-s-urban-dilemma

Chapter 6: Belt Tightening, pp. 214-240

 Page 218, ‘Full text: Action plan on the Belt and Road Initiative’, Gov.cn, 30 March 2015, online at: http://english.gov.cn/archive/publications/2015/03/30/content_281475080249035.htm

Page 218, ‘Full text of Chinese President’s speech at Boao Forum for Asia’, Xinhuanet, 28 March 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-03/29/c_134106145.htm

Page 218,  ‘Xu Shanda: European Recovery Program needs USD 500 million of foreign investment to sustain itself’, Sina, 6 August 2009, online at: http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20090806/07566578273.shtml

Page 220, Xie Tao, ‘Is China’s ‘Belt and Road’ a Strategy?’, The Diplomat, 16 December 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/is-chinas-belt-and-road-a-strategy/

Page 220, Ryan Manuel, ‘One Belt, One Road, many mixed messages’, Nikkei Asian Review, 1 September 2015, online at: http://asia.nikkei.com/Viewpoints/Perspectives/One-Belt-One-Road-many-mixed-messages

Page 220, For analysis of China’s new consular challenges, see Jonas Parello-Plesner and Dr Mathieu Duchâtel, China’s Strong Arm: Protecting Citizens and Assets Abroad, The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2015, online at:  https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/adelphi/by%20year/2015-9b13/chinas-strong-arm-63b7

Page 221, ‘IS ruthlessly kills Chinese people, you still want to speak on the behalf of terrorists?’: IS残忍杀害中国人,你还要为恐怖分子说话吗?, mp.weixin.qq.com, 19 November 2015, online at: http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA4MDM2NzkyOQ==&mid=401458964&idx=1&sn=04467bae224e619d5984f5e98e724dcf&scene=5&srcid=11198h819pTrtm8p9e3eO7Xi#rd

Page 223, ‘Factsheet: Special Drawing Right SDR’, International Monetary Fund, 30 September 2016, online at:

http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/sdr.htm

Page 223, ‘Full Text from President Xi Jinping’s speech’, The National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, online at: https://www.ncuscr.org/content/full-text-president-xi-jinpings-speech

Page 224, For an English translation of Xi Jinping’s speech, ‘Working Together to
Forge a New Partnership of Win-win Cooperation and Create a Community of Shared Future for Mankind’, which he gave at the General Debate of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly on 28 September 2015, see: http://gadebate.un.org/sites/default/files/gastatements/70/70_ZH_en.pdf

Page 224, ‘Statement of the People’s Republic of China – Informal Interactive Dialogue on R2P’, 8 September 2015, online at: http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/china-1.pdf

Page 225, Xi Jinping, ‘Remember history, look to the Future’, Rossiskaya Gazeta, 6 May 2015, online at: http://www.rg.ru/2015/05/06/knr-site.html

Page 226, Humeyra Pamuk, ‘Turkish help for Uighur refugees loom over Erdogan visit to Beijing’, Reuters, 27 July 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-china-uighurs-insight-idUSKCN0Q10PM20150727

Page 226, Lucy Hornby, ‘China accuses Turkey of aiding Uighurs’, The Financial Times, 12 July 2015, online at: http://on.ft.com/1O3cuPe

Page 226, Yenni Kwok, ‘Is There’s a Uighur Terrorist Buildup in Southeast Asia?’, Time, 28 December 2015, online at: http://time.com/4161906/uighur-terrorism-indonesia-thailand-islam-isis/

Page 226, David Brophy, ‘Seymour Hersh turns Uyghur refugees into “would-be fighters” ’, Sinoturcica, 27 December 2015, online at: http://www.sinoturcica.org/seymour-hersh-turns-uyghur-refugees-into-would-be-fighters/

Page 227, http://government.ru/media/files/5AMAccs7mSlXgbff1Ua785WwMWcABDJw.pdf

Page 227, June Teufel Dreyer, ‘China and Russia: The Partnership Deepens’, Foreign Policy Research Institute, 7 January 2016, online at: http://www.fpri.org/article/2016/01/china-and-russia-partnership-deepens/

Page 227, ‘Defense Ministry’s regular press conference on July 30’, Ministry of National Defense of the People’s Republic of China, 30 July 2015, online at: http://eng.mod.gov.cn/Press/2015-07/30/content_4611953.htm

Page 228, ‘India-China Economic Relations’, Embassy of India, Beijing, China, online at: http://www.indianembassy.org.cn/DynamicContent.aspx?MenuId=97&SubMenuId=0 

Page 229, Pierluigi Paganini, ‘China arrested hackers suspected of OPM hack’, Security Affairs, 3 December 2015, online at: http://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/42457/cyber-crime/opm-hack-suspects-arrested.html

Page 229, Transcript of Admiral Harry B. Harris Jr.’s speech at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute on
31 March 2015, online at: http://www.cpf.navy.mil/leaders/harry-harris/speeches/2015/03/ASPI-Australia.pdf

Page 230, Gordon Lubold and Adam Entous, ‘U.S. Says Beijing Is Building Up South China Sea Islands’, The Wall Street Journal, 9 May 2015, online at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-says-beijing-building-up-south-china-sea-islands-1431109387

Page 230, Mira Rapp-Hooper, ‘Before and After: The South China Sea Transformed’, Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, 18 February 2015, online at: http://amti.csis.org/before-and-after-the-south-china-sea-transformed/

Page 230, Katie Hunt, ‘Showdown in the South China Sea: Timeline’, CNN, 8 March 2016, online at: http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/28/asia/china-south-china-sea-disputes-explainer/

Page 230, Jim Sciutto, ‘China warns U.S. surveillance plane’, CNN, 15 September 2015, online at: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/05/20/politics/south-china-sea-navy-flight/

Page 230, Ben Brumfield, ‘U.S. defense chief to China: End South China Sea expansion’, CNN, 30 May 2015, online at: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/05/30/china/singapore-south-china-sea-ash-carter/

Page 230, Bonnie S. Glaser and Peter A. Dutton, ‘The U.S. Navy’s Freedom of Navigation Operation around Subi Reed: Deciphering U.S. signaling’, The National Interest, 6 November 2015, online at: http://nationalinterest.org/feature/the-us-navy%E2%80%99s-freedom-navigation-operation-around-subi-reef-14272

Page 230, Richard Bejtlich, ‘To hack, or not to hack?’, Brookings, 28 September 2015, online at: https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2015/09/28/to-hack-or-not-to-hack/

Page 230, ‘U.S.-China Strategic & Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track’, U.S. Department of State, 24 June 2015, online at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2015/06/244205.htm

Page 231, Sam LaGrone, ‘U.S. Destroyer Made an “Innocent Passage” Near Chinese South China Sea Artificial Island in Recent Mission’, USNI News, 2 November 2015, online at: https://news.usni.org/2015/11/02/u-s-destroyer-made-an-innocent-passage-near-chinese-south-chia-sea-artificial-island-in-recent-mission

Page 231, Tom Philips, ‘South China Sea: Beijing ‘not frightened to fight a war’ after US move, The Guardian, 28 October 2015, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/28/china-not-frightened-fight-war-south-china-sea-uss-lassen

Page 231, ‘Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’, Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, 14 August 2015, online at: http://japan.kantei.go.jp/97_abe/statement/201508/0814statement.html; see also, ‘Commentary: Abe’s watered-down apology fails sincerity test’, News.cn, 14 August 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-08/14/c_134518061.htm

Page 231, James Hardy, ‘China’s 3 September 2015 military parade’, IHS Jane’s 360, 4 September 2015, online at: http://www.janes.com/article/54028/china-s-3-september-2015-military-parade

Page 232, ‘China defends actions after Japan says jet scrambles up’, Reuters, 20 October 2015, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-japan-security-idUSKCN0SE0TR20151020

Page 232, ‘Yang Jiechi and Shotaro Yachi Co-chair the First China-Japan High-level Political Dialogue Held in Beijing’, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, 16 July 2015, online at: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1282551.shtml

Page 232, Shannon Tiezzi, ‘China, Japan Hold High-Level Talks, Prepare for Trilateral Summit, The Diplomat, 14 October 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/10/china-japan-hold-high-level-talks-prepare-for-trilateral-summit

Page 233, ‘Senior CPC leader meets with DPRK’s Kim, delivers letter from Xi’, Xinhuanet, 10 October 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2015-10/10/c_134698240.htm

Page 233, ‘North Korea’s Kim Jong-un “in H-bomb claim” ’, BBC, 10 December 2015, online at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-35060035

Page 233, Bo Zhiyue, ‘Why Did Kim Jong-un’s Showcase Band Cancel Their China Show?’, The Diplomat, 15 December 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/why-did-kim-jong-uns-showcase-band-cancel-their-china-show/

Page 233, Shawn W. Crispin, ‘China’s Xi Misses the Mark on Vietnam Visit’, The Diplomat, 6 November 2015, online at: http://thediplomat.com/2015/11/chinas-xi-misses-the-mark-on-vietnam-visit

Page 234, ‘Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy’, U.S. Department of Defense, 14 August 2015, online at: http://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/NDAA%20A-P_Maritime_SecuritY_Strategy-08142015-1300-FINALFORMAT.PDF

Page 234, James Hardy, ‘China’s first runway in Spratlys under construction’, IHS Jane’s 360, 17 April 2015, online at: http://www.janes.com/article/50714/china-s-first-runway-in-spratlys-under-construction

Page 234, ‘Airpower Projection’, Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, 29 July 2015, online at: http://amti.csis.org/airstrips-scs

Page 235, These figures are estimates from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, see http://www.sipri.org/googlemaps/milex_top_15_2015_exp_map.html

Page 235, ‘Full text: China’s Military Strategy’, Chinadaily.com.cn, 26 May 2015, online at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-05/26/content_20820628.htm

Page 235, CSIS Missile Defense Project, 20 September 2014, online at: http://missilethreat.com/china-produces-guam-killer-2/

Page 235, ‘China building second aircraft carrier’, People.cn, 31 December 2015, online at: http://en.people.cn/n3/2015/1231/c90000-8998123.html

Page 235, ‘PLA issues regulation to close loopholes, end regularities’, People.cn, 6 July 2015, online at: http://en.people.cn/n/2015/0706/c90786-8916020.html

Page 235, Jeremy Page and Julian E. Barnes, ‘China Shows Its Growing Might’, The Wall Street Journal, 12 January 2011, online at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704428004576075042571461586

Page 236, Ben Quinn, ‘On menu at Queen’s banquet for XI Jinping: Balmoral venison and The Spy Who Loved Me’, The Guardian, 20 October 2015, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/20/queens-banquet-xi-jinping-balmoral-venison-spy-who-loved-me

Page 236, Patrick Wintour, ‘Britain “sucking up” to China is a national humiliation, says PM’s former adviser, The Guardian, 21 October 2015, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/21/britain-sucking-up-china-national-humiliation-former-adviser-steve-hilton

Page 236, Jamil Anderlini and George Parker, ‘China and the UK: Pomp and circumstance’, Financial Times, 24 October 2015, online at: https://next.ft.com/content/a25e10dc-78e4-11e5-933d-efcdc3c11c89

Page 236, ‘China won’t fall for Cameron’s sincerity’, Global Times, 2 December 2013, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/829371.shtml

Page 236, ‘Attacks on Britain ‘kowtowing’ to China merely sour grapes’, Global Times, 17 October 2015, online at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/947595.shtml

Page 237, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility for PCA Case No 2013-19
in the Matter of an Arbitration before an Arbitral Tribunal Constituted Under Annex VII to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea between the Republic of the Philippines and the People’s Republic of China’, online at: http://www.pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/1506

Page 237, CIW and CICIR, ‘Perspectives on Security’, November 2015, p. 18, online at: http://aus.thechinastory.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/foreignrelations_ciw_cicir_2015.pdf

Page 238, Tom Phillips, ‘Britain has made ‘visionary’ choice to become China’s best friend, says Xi’, The Guardian, 18 October 2015, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/oct/18/britian-has-made-visionary-choice-to-become-chinas-best-friend-says-xi

Page 238, Philip Stephens, ‘A painful lesson in how not to deal with China’, The Financial Times, 6 December 2013, https://www.ft.com/content/cb01954e-5d12-11e3-a558-00144feabdc0

Page 238, Geoff Dyer and George Parker, ‘US attacks UK’s ‘constant accommodation’ with China’, The Financial Times, 13 March 2015, online at: https://www.ft.com/content/31c4880a-c8d2-11e4-bc64-00144feab7de

Page 238, ‘UK welcomes President Xi Jinping for China State visit’, Gov.uk, 20 October 2015, online at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-welcomes-president-xi-jinping-for-china-state-visit

Forum: One Belt One Road: International Development Finance with Chinese Characteristics, pp. 244-251 

Page 245, ‘Xi suggests China, C. Asia build Silk Road economic belt’, Xinhuanet, 7 September 2013, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-09/07/c_132700695.htm

Page 245, ‘Speech by Chinese President Xi Jinping to Indonesian Parliament’, ASEAN-China Centre, online at: http://www.asean-china-center.org/english/2013-10/03/c_133062675.htm

Page 246,  ‘Vision and proposed actions outlined on jointly building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road’ “推动共建丝绸之路经济带和21世纪海上丝绸之路的愿景与行动”, China Daily, online at: http://language.chinadaily.com.cn/2015-03/30/content_19950951.htm

Page 246, Wang Peicheng王培成,‘Policy Banks Repositioned’ “政策性银行再定位”, Caijing《财经》杂志 , 10 May 2015, online at: http://m.caijing.com.cn/api/show?contentid=3878980

Page 247, Gong Wen龚雯, ‘The ‘Chinese Exploration’ of Development Finance—an interview with China Development Bank Chairman Chen Yuan’ “开发性金融的“中国探索”——访国家开发银行董事长陈元”,  Renmin Wang, 3 September 2012, online at: http://www.people.com.cn/n/2012/0904/c15373-18917482.html

Page 247, Henry Sanderson, Michael Forsythe, China’s Superbank: Debt, Oil and Influence: How China Development Bank is Rewriting the Rules of Finance, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 2013. See also, Liao Fan, ‘Quench a Thirst with Poison? — Local Government Financing Vehicles’ Past, Present and Future’, Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law, available online at: http://web.law.columbia.edu/parker-school/chinese-state-capitalism-workshop/papers/quench-thirst-poison-local-government-financing-vehicles-past-present-and-future-liao-fan.

Page 247, Wang Wensong王文松, ‘Wang Wensong: The China Development Bank has a big role to play in assisting ‘One Belt One Road’ construction’ “王文松:国家开发银行助推“一带一路”建设大有可为”, Xinhua Education, 24 May 2015, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/live/2015-05/24/c_127835411.htm.

Page 248, Development finance in China. Case studies, The China Development Bank and Renmin University of China, Singapore: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2011.

Page 249, Xu Chenggang, ‘The Fundamental Institutions of China’s Reforms and Development’, Journal of Economic Literature, vol 49, no.4 (December 2011), p. 1077.

Page 250, Niu Wenxin钮文新, ‘AIIB a step forward from the BRICS bank’ “亚投行比金砖国家开发银行更近一步”, China Economic Weekly, 31 March 2015, online at: http://world.people.com.cn/n/2015/0331/c157278-26777650.html

Page 250, See for instance, Huang Yiping黄益平,  ‘Huang Yiping on One Belt One Road: Hopefully it won’t become an international version of the Western Development Strategy’ “黄益平谈一带一路:希望不要成为国际版西部大开发”,  Sina Finance, 30 January 2015, online at: http://finance.sina.com.cn/hy/20150130/111621437403.shtml