Chapter 1: Foreign Policy for a Global China, pp.36-61
Page 39, Denny Roy, ‘Hegemon on the horizon? China’s threat to east Asian security’, International Security, vol.19, no.1 (1994): 149–68.
Page 39, G. John Ikenberry, ‘The Rise of China and the Future of the West’, Foreign Affairs, vol.87, no.1, (2008): 23–37.
Page 42, see Milton Osborne, ‘New numbers on China’s Cambodia’s aid’, The Interpreter, 19 September 2012.
Page 42, Don Emmerson, ‘ASEAN stumbles in Phnom Penh’, PacNet, no.45, 19 July 2012.
Page 42, the analyst from CICIR was cited in Kathrin Hille, ‘Beijing considers stronger foreign ties’, Financial Times, 15 August 2012.
Page 42, Ernest Z. Bower, ‘China reveals its hand on ASEAN in Phnom Penh’, Southeast Asia from the Corner of 18th and K Streets, Center for Strategic & International Studies Newsletter, vol.III, issue 14 (19 July 2012).
Page 42, for further reading on Chinese foreign aid and developmental assistance to Africa see Claire Provost and Rich Harris, ‘China commits billions in aid to Africa as part of charm offensive’, The Guardian, 29 April 2013.
Page 42, for further reading on Chinese economic statecraft in the context of the North Korean nuclear crisis see Brendan Taylor, Sanctions as Grand Strategy, London: Routledge for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2010, pp.43–49.
Page 42, for further reading on China’s use of economic sanctions in the context of the September 2010 Chinese fishing trawler incident and the Scarborough Shoal standoff see James Reilly, ‘China’s unilateral sanctions’, The Washington Quarterly, vol.35, issue 4 (2012): 121–33.
Page 44, Hugh White, ‘As power shifts, ASEAN stumbles’, The Interpreter, 25 July 2012.
Page 44, for further reading on the limits of Chinese military power see Paul Dibb, ‘Why I disagree with Hugh White on China’s rise’, The Australian, 13 August 2012.
Page 44, Yoichi Kato, ‘Interview, Yan Xuetong: China, U.S. should seek cooperation without trust’, Asahi Shimbun (English edition), 24 December 2012.
Page 45, Kevin Rudd, ‘A maritime Balkans of the 21st century?’, Foreign Policy, 30 January 2013.
Page 45, Michael Auslin, ‘The Sino-Japanese standoff’, National Review, 28 January 2013.
Page 48, for further reading on the deepening of Sino-Japanese tensions in early 2013 see ‘Locked on’, The Economist, 9 February 2013.
Page 48, Linda Jakobson, ‘China’s foreign policy dilemma’, Analysis, Lowy Institute for International Policy, February 2013.
Page 48, see, for example, Kenji Minemura, ‘China’s Senkakus operations overseen by party task force led by Xi’, The Asahi Shimbun, 4 February 2013.
Page 48, for further reading on the May 2013 crisis between the Philippines and Taiwan see Tim Culpan, ‘Taiwan, Phillipines row escalates’, Sydney Morning Herald, 13 May 2013.
Page 49, Robert Manning, ‘China’s new city: Is this Beijing’s pivot?’, PacNet, Center for Strategic & International Studies newsletter, no.48 (3 August, 2012).
Page 50, Song Shengxia, ‘China, Japan and S. Korea begin FTA talk’, Global Times, 27 March 2013.
Page 50, Robert S. Ross, ‘The problem with the pivot: Obama’s new Asia policy is unnecessary and counterproductive’, Foreign Affairs, vol.91, no.6 (2012): 81–82.
Page 50, Wu Xinbo, ‘Not backing down: China responds to the US rebalance to Asia’, Global Asia, vol.7, no.4 (2012): 21.
Page 50, Li Xiangyang, ed. 礼向阳, Blue Book of Asia Pacific: Annual Report on Development of Asia-Pacific 亚太蓝皮书，亚太地区发展报告, Social Sciences Academic Press 社会科学院亚太与全球战略研究院 (China, 2013)
Page 50, Lanxin Xiang, ‘China and the “pivot”’, Survival, vol.54, no.5 (2012): 117.
Page 51, The Hon. Kevin Rudd MP, ‘The political, economic and foreign policy priorities of China’s new leadership’, International Institute for Strategic Studies Oberoi Lecture, Trident Hotel, Mumbai, 11 December 2012.
Page 51, for further reading on China’s leadership transition see Ren Xiao, ‘China’s leadership change and its implications for foreign relations’, Asia Policy, no. 15 (2013): 56.
Page 51, President Xi’s statements were cited in Lanxin Xiang, ‘China and the “pivot”’, 114.
Page 51, David Shambaugh, ‘China’s leadership transition: Will it go deep enough’, Global Asia, vol.8, no.1 (2013): 21.
Page 52, Kato, ‘Interview, Yan Xuetong.’
Page 53, Ren Xiao, ‘China’s leadership change’, 58.
Page 57, ‘China in Pacific for common development: Chinese vice FM’, People’s Daily, 1 September 2012.
Page 58, the ‘charm offensive’ descriptor became fashionable in the late 1990s and through most of the 2000s to describe the much kinder, more nuanced foreign policy approach taken by China, relative at least to its coercive diplomacy of the mid-1990s. The term is most frequently associated with the American commentator Joshua Kurlantzick. See, for example, Joshua Kurlantzick, Charm Offensive: How China’s soft power is transforming the world, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
Page 58, President Xi’s remarks on North Korea are cited in Celia Hatton, ‘Is China ready to abandon North Korea?’, BBC News, 12 April 2013.
Page 58, Shaun Waterman, ‘China doing “quite well” enforcing U.N. sanctions on North Korea, South says’, Washington Times, 15 April 2013.
Page 58, see Sid Maher, ‘China deal the cornerstone of Gillard’s Asian century’, The Australian, 10 April 2013.
Page 59, Rowan Callick, ‘Beijing’s goal to wean Canberra off US’, The Australian, 12 April 2013.
Page 60, Yuan Peng; Scott Harold, trans., ‘China’s Real Challenges is the next 5 to 10 years’, online at http://chinaelectionsblog.net/?p=20600
Page 60, on ‘Tianxia’ see Zhao Tingyang, ‘A political world philosophy in terms of All-Under-Heaven (Tian-xia)’, DIOGENES, vol.56, no.1 (2009): 5–18.
Page 61, ‘Yan Xuetong on Chinese realism, the Tsinghua School of International Relations and the Impossibility of Harmony’, Theory Talk, no.51 (2012), online at http://theory-talks.org/2012/11/theory-talk-51.html
Chapter 2: Revolution to Riches, pp. 90-109
Page 92, see Bloomberg News series ‘Revolution to riches’, online at: http://topics.bloomberg.com/revolution-to-riches/ and in particular Bloomberg News, ‘Xi Jinping millionaire relations reveal fortunes of elite’, 29 June 2012, online at:
Page 93, see Xi Jinping 习近平, ‘Resolutely defend, propagate and develop Socialism with Chinese characteristics’ 紧紧围绕坚持和发展中国特色社会主义, Opening address at the 18th National Party Congress, 18 November 2012, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/2012-11/19/c_123967017.htm and ‘Full text of Hu Jintao’s report at 18th Party Congress’, Xinhua, 8 November 2012, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/special/18cpcnc/2012-11/17/c_131981259.htm
Page 94, for more detailed coverage on the viewpoints presented here see Ronald Coase and Ning Wang, How China Became Capitalist, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012; Yasheng Huang, Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics: Entrepreneurship and the state, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008; Frank Pieke, ‘The Communist Party and social management in China’, China Information 26(2): 149–65; Christopher McNally, ‘Sino-Capitalism: China’s re-emergence and the international political economy’, World Politics Vol 64, 4 (2012): 741–76; and Kjeld Erik Brødsgaard, ‘SOE reform and party–business relations in China’, seminar presented at China Forum, Australian National University, 24 April 2013.
Page 96, for further details on SOE performance see ‘Unirule: SOEs register negative real profits’, Caixin Online, 3 March 2011, online at:
Page 97, The Lowy Institute Poll 2012 is available online at: http://www.lowyinstitute.org/files/lowy_poll_2012_web3.pdf . Tony Abbott is quoted in ‘Abbott warns Chinese investment may be restricted’, ABC News, 24 July 2012, online at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-07-24/abbott-warns-about-chinese-investment/4151560 A useful source for Chinese investment in Australia is KPMG and University of Sydney China Studies Centre, ‘Demystifying Chinese investment in Australia’, March 2013 online at:
Page 98, see Luke Hurst and Bijun Wang, ‘Australia’s dumb luck and Chinese investment’, East Asia Forum, 1 April 2012, online at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2012/04/01/australias-dumb-luck-and-chinese-investment/ and Eric C. Anderson, Sinophobia: The Huawei story, San Bernardino, CA: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.
Page 99, see Joseph Menn, ‘White House-ordered review found no evidence of Huawei spying: sources’, Reuters, 18 October 2012, online at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/18/us-huawei-spying-idUSBRE89G1Q920121018 and John Lord, ‘Huawei humbug a dangerous position’, Australian Financial Review, 17 October 2012, online at: http://www.afr.com/p/opinion/huawei_humbug_dangerous_diversion_P8Zf8USW0b3ABqHl5nrVwN
Page 101, see Henry Sanderson and Michael Forsythe, China’s Superbank: Debt, oil and influence – How China’s Development Bank is rewriting the rules of finance, Singapore: Wiley, 2012.
Page 102, quote from ibid., p. 174. This book and David Uren’s book, The Kingdom and the Quarry: China, Australia, fear and greed, Melbourne: Black Inc., 2012, are both highly recommended.
Page 105, see ‘Renewed call for increases in dividend payouts by SOEs’, Global Times, 11 March 2013, online at: http://english.people.com.cn/90778/8161722.html and ‘Share SOE profits’, China Daily, 26 March 2013, online at:
Page 106, see Evan Feigenbaum and Damien Ma, ‘The rise of China’s reformers? Why economic change could come sooner than you think’, Foreign Affairs, 17 April 2013, online at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139295/evan-a-feigenbaum-and-damien-ma/the-rise-of-chinas-reformers
Page 107, for this pair of articles see Eric Li, ‘The Life of the Party’, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2013, online at:
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138476/eric-x-li/the-life-of-the-party and Yasheng Huang, ‘Democratize or die: why China’s Communists face reform or revolution’, Foreign Affairs, January/February 2013, online at:
Page 99, for more on rebalancing the economy see Yiping Huang, ‘China’s new growth model’, East Asia Forum, 14 April 2013, online at: http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2013/04/14/chinas-new-growth-model/
Chapter 4: Under Rule of Law, pp.202-229
Page 206, see Susan Trevaskes, ‘The ideology of law and order’, in Geremie R. Barmé, ed., with Jeremy Goldkorn, Carolyn Cartier and Gloria Davies, Red Rising Red Eclipse: China story yearbook 2012, Canberra: Australian Centre on China in the World, Australian National University, pp.74–81, online at: https://www.thechinastory.org/yearbooks/yearbook-2012/chapter-3-the-ideology-of-law-and-order/.
For a discussion of rigid stability, see Jason Todd, ‘China’s rigid stability — Yu Jianrong 于建嵘 analyses a predicament’, online at: https://www.thechinastory.org/2013/01/chinas-rigid-stability-an-analysis-of-a-predicament-by-yu-jianrong-于建嵘/. For a media discussion in Chinese on rigid Stability Maintenance, see: http://chinadigitaltimes.net/chinese/2012/09/纽约时报-刚性维稳/
Page 211, Sui Xiaofei 隋笑飞, ‘Zhou Yongkang in an inspection tour of politico-legal organs in Beijing and Tianjin calls for the further implementation of law enforcement, standardisation and promotion of strict, just, civilised and clean enforcement of law’ 周永康在北京天津政法机关考察时强调深入推进执法规范化建设促进严格公正文明廉洁执法, The People’s Daily 人民日报, 22 August 2012, online at: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2012/0822/c64094-18798600.html; For Pu Zhiqiang’s statement, see ‘Pu Zhiqiang: hold Zhou Yongkang to account for the stability maintenance model and establish the rule of law and constitution’
浦志强：清算周永康维稳模式建立法治与宪政, Voice of America online, 6 February 2013, online at: http://www.voachinese.com/content/foxcom-20130206/1598059.html
Page 213, ‘Meng Jianzhu conveys and implements the spirit of the Eighteenth Chinese Communist Party National Congress within the organs directly under the Ministry of Public Security’ 孟建柱在公安部直属机关传达贯彻党的十八大精神, 16 November 2012, online at:
Page 215, Jiang Bixin 江必新, ‘Topic six: several reflections on promotion of law-based governance of the country in an all-around way in the context of studying the Eighteenth Chinese Communist Party National Congress Report’ 议题六：全面推进依法治国的若干思考, People Forum 人民论坛杂志, no.385 (20 November 2012), online at: http://www.rmlt.com.cn/News/201211/201211201830335917.html
Page 216, ‘Eye-catching new plans for politico-legal work’ 新风扑面的政法工作部署,
Liaowang Weekly News 瞭望新闻周刊, 14 January 2013, online at:
Page 217, ‘RTL reform underway but undercover’, Human Rights Journal, 19 June 2013, online at: http://www.duihuahrjournal.org/2013/06/rtl-reform-underway-but-undercover.html. For news on Yunnan RTL see, ‘Yunnan suspends arrests for three types of illegal behaviour that attracts RTL punishment: Sullying the reputation of officials no longer means a RTL sentence’ 云南暂停三种行为劳教审批 丑化领导人形象不再劳教, Beijing Evening News 北京晨报, 7 February 2013, online at:
http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2013-02/07/c_124332693.htm . Also see ‘Abolishment of RTL, in many places it means low-key “transformation” into drugs rehabilitation centers’ 劳教正被废除 多地劳教所低调“转型”戒毒所, The Observer 观察者, 18 June 2013, online at: http://www.guancha.cn/society/2013_06_18_152062.shtml
Page 218, ‘The 2012 Mental Health Law 精神卫生法 — an interview with Guo Zhiyuan 郭志媛’, online at: https://www.thechinastory.org/category/interviews/
Page 221, Zhou Kaili 周凯莉, ‘Trend in the Petition-ising of justice becoming an increasing concern’ 司法信访化趋势引发担忧, Caixin, 2 December 2010, online at: http://china.caixin.com/2010-12-02/100203981.html; and ‘Wang Qinghua: the petition-isation of justice is worthy of our attention’ 汪庆华：司法信访化趋势值得深, Southern Daily online 南方都市报, 6 February 2013, online at: http://ndnews.oeeee.com/html/201302/06/22518.html
Page 225, ‘Xi Jinping vows “power within cage of regulations” ’, Xinhua, 22 January 2013, online at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-01/22/c_132120363.htm
Page 226, Zhao Ling 赵凌, ‘Xiao Yang’s collected works published, his keywords being “reform”, “the constitution” and “the rule of law”: There actually are rules in existence that should be abided by, the constitution being the bottom line’ 肖扬文集出版 关键词：改革、宪法、法治 改革有章可循，底线就是宪法, Southern Weekend 南方周末, 6 July 2012, online at: http://www.infzm.com/content/78155; For Jiang Ping’s statement, see Duan Hongxin, ‘Despite regression, leading scholar sees hope for rule of law’, Caixin, 2 March 2013, online at: http://english.caixin.com/2012-03-02/100363170.html; Jiang Bixin 江必新, ‘Theoretical reflections on the construction of rule of law-based governance’ 关于社会主义法治国家建设 若干问题的理论思考, Theoretical Horizons 理论视野, no.6 (2012): 12–13.
Page 227, Chris Buckley, ‘China on alert against “dangerous” Western values’, Sydney Morning Herald, 14 May 2013, online at: http://www.smh.com.au/world/china-on-alert-against-dangerous-western-values-20130514-2jj0g.html; Yang Xiaoqing 杨晓青, ‘A comparative study of constitutional rule and the people’s democratic dictatorship’ 宪政与人民民主制度之比较研究, Red Flag Magazine 红旗文稿, no.10 (21 May 2013); ‘“Constitutionalism” is a beating-around-the bush way of rejecting the Chinese path to development’“宪政”是兜圈子否定中国发展之路, Global Times 寰球时报, online at: http://opinion.huanqiu.com/editorial/2013-05/3957200.html; Patrick Boehler, ‘Conservatives counter demands for constitutional rule in China’, South China Morning Post, 22 May 2013, online at:
Chapter 5: Building Civilised Cities, pp. 256-285
Page 260, see ‘Air pollution in Beijing at record levels’, China Digital Times, 12 January 2013, online at: www.chinadigitaltimes.net/2013/01/air-pollution-in-beijing-off-the-charts/
Page 261, for the source of this quote on ‘market-standard’ information see the leaked US State Department document from WikiLeaks, Cable 09BEIJING1945, ‘Embassy air quality tweets said to “confuse”
Chinese’, 10 July 2009, online at: www.wikileaks.org/cable/2009/07/09BEIJING1945.html
Page 262, for the original material in which these quotes and experiences appeared see Wei Kuaiping 微快评, ‘Smog in Beijing: Standing in front of Tian’anmen and can’t see Chairman Mao’ 雾霾北京:站在天安门前,却看不见毛主席, 15 January 2013, online at: www.life.caixun.com/wkp/20130115‐CX039uhc.html; Edward Wong, ‘On a scale of 0 to 500, Beijing’s air quality tops ‘crazy bad’ at 755’, New York Times, 12 January 2013, online at: www.nytimes.com/2013/01/13/science/earth/beijing-air-pollution‐off‐the‐ charts.html?_r=0; and Barnaby Martin, Hanging Man: The arrest of Ai Weiwei, London: Faber and Faber, 2013, pp.139-140.
Page 262, the Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau air quality index appears online at www.semc.gov.cn/aqi/home/Index.aspx
Page 263, on declining tourist arrivals see Louise Watt, ‘Air pollution takes toll on China’s tourism’, Associated Press, 13 August 2013, online at: bigstory.ap.org/article/air-pollution-takes-toll-chinas-tourism
Page 263, see the official document ‘Notice of implementation of the ambient air quality standards (GB3095-2012)’, 关于实施 “环境空气质量标准” (GB3095‐2012) 的通知, Ministry of Environmental Protection, 29 February 2012, online at: www.mep.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bwj/201203/t20120302_224147.htm
Pages 264-265, on Dazhai, for example, see Judith Shapiro, Mao’s War Against Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp.95-137.
Page 270, for details on the evaluation procedure see ‘The highest honour of the Chinese city’ 中国城市的最高荣誉, 1 February 2009, online at: www.neweekly.com.cn/newsview.php?id=512
Pages 268-269, for evaluation categories see ‘National Civilised City evaluation system (2011)’ 全国文明城市测评体系 (2011), online at: www.wenming.cn
Page 275, on Mayor Xu’s promotion of the Civilised City system see ‘Mayor Xu Zongheng guests on Shenzhen news network to talk about the Civilised City’, 许宗衡市长作客深圳新闻网畅谈文明城市, Shenzhen News Network, 深圳新闻网, 4 February 2009, online at: www.media.sohu.com/20090604/n264326500.shtml
Page 275, in an editorial on Xu Zongheng and corruption Wang Xiangwei wrote, ‘There were rumours that on top of soliciting bribes from other officials for career advancements, he himself paid huge sums for his own promotions. One credible rumour is that the direct cause of his downfall was that he tried to bribe one of the central government leaders in trying to become the party secretary of Shenzhen, but the leader alerted anti-graft investigators’, South China Morning Post, 14 August 2012, online at: www.scmp.com/article/966593/just-tip‐iceberg‐official‐graft
Page 275, on the new Shenzhen law see ‘Civility law to take effect March 1’, Shenzhen Daily, 24 January 2013, online at: www.lawinfochina.com/Search/DisplayInfo.aspx?lib=news&id=10693
Page 275, on the corruption of Du Shicheng see ‘Corrupt official linked to PLA General’, South China Morning Post, 1 August 2007, online at: www.scmp.com/print/article/602578/corrupt-official-linked-pla-general; and Luo Changping 罗昌平, ‘Du Shicheng 626 million yuan in bribes mostly involves two women’, 杜世成626万余元受贿款大多牵涉两个女人, Caijing Magazine, 财经杂志, 2008 No. 5, online at: magazine.caijing.com.cn/2008-03-02/110064364.html
Page 275, on the corruption of Kang Huijin see ‘Shanghai “Director of real estate speculation” sentenced to life in prison’, 沪“炒房处长”被判无期徒刑, Caijing news network 财经网, 23 October 2009, online at: www.caijing.com.cn/2009-10-23/110291718.html; and ‘Top Pudong official fired, faces probe over deals’, South China Morning Post, 11 October 2007, online at:
Page 277, on civilising achievements in Xiamen see ‘Establishing Xiamen civilisation – people benefitting people as the starting point for a support rate of 99.8%’, 厦门文明创建以为民惠民为出发点 支持率达 99.8%, 5 December 2012, Xiamen real estate network, 厦门房地产联合网, online at: www.news.xmhouse.com/bd/201212/t20121205_426994.htm
Chapter 7: Fitting Words, pp. 380-407
Page 384, Zhang Yi张漪, ‘Zhu Jun explains “human language” at the Spring Festival Gala while recalling memorable gaffes’ 朱军解释春晚如何说 “人话” 回忆刻骨铭心口误, Yangtze Evening Post 扬子晚报, 2 Feb 2013, online at: http://www.chinanews.com/cul/2013/02-02/4542874.shtml
Pages 385-6, Yan Lianke; Jane Weizhen Pan and Marty Merz, trans., ‘On China’s state-sponsored amnesia’, New York Times, 1 April 2013, online at: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/02/opinion/on-chinas-state-sponsored-amnesia.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Page 387, Geremie R. Barmé, ‘New China newspeak’, China Heritage Quarterly, no.29 (March 2012), online at http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/glossary.php?searchterm=029_xinhua.inc&issue=029
Page 387, the prevalence of counterfeit goods in China has led many companies to use slogans such as: ‘We sell only genuine products! We resolutely oppose fakes!’ 我们只卖正版！坚决抵制仿版! On the use of this promissory rhetoric in the promotion of infant formula, see, for instance, ‘HeadStar infant formula resolutely supports the Chinese government’s strict supervision of ‘foreign infant formula’ 益智源奶粉坚决支持中国政府 严格履行“洋奶粉”监管, 61EF.cn 中国品牌童装网, 29 September 2011, online at:
Page 388, Xinhua editorial, ‘Hold high the great banner of our united struggle: study and implement one of the spiritual aspects of General Secretary Hu Jintao’s Important Speech of ‘23 July’ 高举伟大旗帜 共同团结奋斗: 学习贯彻胡锦涛总书记’7•23’重要讲话精神之一, People.cn 中国共产党新闻网, online at: http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2012/0727/c346919-18610075.html
Page 388, Xu Lianxin 徐连欣 ed. ‘Why Hu Jiantao tirelessly emphasised the “three unwaverings’” on his tour of Xinjiang’ 胡锦涛新疆考察为何不厌其烦强调 ‘三个不动摇, People.com.cn 人民新闻网 26 August 2009, online at:
Page 389, ‘What are the three unwaverings?’ 三个不动摇是什么, comment posted 17 April 2010, online at: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/147828771.html%202010-04-17%2018:41
Page 390, ‘Mr and Mrs Xijinping return home after their first official overseas trip: experts praise it as a great success’ 习近平夫妇结束首访回国:专家称非常成功, CCTV, 31 March 2013, online at: http://news.cntv.cn/2013/03/31/ARTI1364666203764604.shtml
Page 390, Vladimir Soldatkin, ‘In Moscow, new Chinese leader Xi warns against meddling’, Reuters, 23 March 2013, online at:
Page 390, Josh Rudolph, trans., ‘BBC: Netizens on Xi’s “If the Shoe Fits” speech’, China Digital Times, 25 March 2013, online at:
Page 391, these figures are based on the following reports: ‘2011 statistical report of the nation’s educational development’ 2011年全国教育事业发展统计公报, Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, online at: http://www.moe.edu.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/moe_633/201208/141305.html; OECD, ‘Education at a glance 2011: Country note — China’, online at: http://www.oecd.org/china/48677215.pdf; Zhou Yingfeng周英峰, ‘Chinese Communist Party membership has grown to 82,602 million, with the under 35 age group making up 25 percent’ 中共党员队伍壮大至8260.2万名 35岁以下占25%, Xinhuanet, 30 June 2012, online at: http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2012/0630/c1026-18415997.html
Page 393, Hu Shuli 胡舒立, ‘A new round of ‘guiding reform by opening up’: key issues’ 新一轮“开放促改革”之要义, first published in New Century 新世纪, no.13, 8 April 2013, online at:
Page 393, an important locus classicus for zizhi is the eleventh-century magnum opus, A Comprehensive Mirror to Aid Goverance资治通鉴, written by the prominent Confucian scholar-bureaucrat, Sima Guang 司马光, initially for the Yingzong Emperor, and later his successor the Shenzong Emperor.
Page 394, Jiang Qing and Daniel Bell, ‘A Confucian constitution for China’, New York Times, 10 July 2012, online at:
Page 395, Benjamin Penny, ‘Searching for a sage today’, in Geremie R. Barmé, ed., with Jeremy Goldkorn, Carolyn Cartier and Gloria Davies, Red Rising, Red Eclipse: China story yearbook 2012, Canberra: Australian Centre on China in the World, Australian National University, pp.148–65, online at:
Page 395, Zhang Lifan’s章立凡microblog post of 27 August 2012 and comments on the post are archived at:
Page 396, David Bandurski, ‘For whom Mr Bell tolls’, China Media Project, 28 November 2011, online at:
Page 397, Kang Xiaoguang, ‘An outline of Confucian constitutionalism’ 儒家宪政论纲, 6 March 2013, online at: http://www.chinarujiao.net/p_info.asp?pid=17067
Page 397, the ‘Three Represents’ was the brainchild of Jiang Zemin, former Party General Secretary and Hu Jintao’s predecessor. It was a contentious revision of the Chinese Communist Party’s Constitution, formally adopted in 2001, to allow ‘private entrepreneurs’ (wealthy business owners) to gain Party membership. There was strident opposition from Party elders such as Deng Liqun who saw the ‘Three Represents’ as a betrayal of the Communist Party’s founding aims. An official account of the ‘Three Represents’ is online at: http://english.people.com.cn/90002/92169/92211/6274616.html.
Page 398, for instance, see the comments archived at: http://club.kdnet.net/dispbbs.asp?boardID=1&ID=7511961&page=5; http://www.360doc.com/content/11/1229/09/8001616_175743248.shtml
Page 399, ‘Chatroom with Ai Weiwei: The art of dissent’, World Policy Journal (Fall 2012), online at: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/fall2012/chatroom-ai-weiwei
Page 399, T.P., ‘Orwell, Kafka and Ai Weiwei’, The Economist, 13 April 2012, online at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/analects/2012/04/house-arrest-china
Page 399, Rachel Arons, ‘Ai Weiwei’s “Gangnam Style” knockoff’, The New Yorker, 26 October 2012, online at:
Page 400, the first publication of Big Breasts and Wide Hips in 1996 saw pro-state critics accusing Mo Yan of distorting history and spreading ideological decay. He produced a shorter revised version of the novel in 2003. For more on the novel, see Howard Y.F. Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of history in Deng’s China, 1979–1997 (Leiden: Brill, 2008), 56–64 .
Page 400, Perry Link, ‘Does this writer deserve the prize?’ New York Review of Books (December 2012), online at:
Page 401, David Daley, ‘Rushdie: Mo Yan is a “patsy of the regime”’, Salon 7 December 2012, online at:
Page 401, ‘MoYan: for some writers, a salary means social security, this is the reality in China’ 莫言：一些作家拿工资享受福利 这是中国现实, ChinaNews.com 中国新闻网, 16 December 2009, online at: http://www.chinanews.com/cul/news/2009/12-16/2021204.shtml. See also Didi Kirsten Tatlow, ‘The writer, the state and the Nobel’, New York Times, 12 October 2012, online at: http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/10/12/the-writer-the-state-and-the-nobel/
Page 401, Hong Lei’s remarks were reported in the suggestively titled article: ‘China’s response to Norway’s Nobel award to Liu Xiaobo: Only the one who has created the problem can fix it’ 中方回应挪威曾给刘晓波诺奖:解铃还须系铃人, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China, 13 October 2012, online at:
Page 402, Wei Yingjie’s post on Mo Yan is archived at:
Page 402, Li Jie李劼, ‘Mo Yan’s Nobel award: A literature about Chinese peasants that suits the Western imagination’ 莫言诺奖：吻合西方想像的中国农民文学, The New York Times (Chinese edition), 8 December 2012, online at:
Page 402, Ding Guoqi丁国旗, ‘China is happy and the world is happy’ 中国很高兴 世界也很高兴, a CCTV commentary, 11 October 2012, transcript online at:
Page 402, ‘Liu Zaifu and Xu Jilin discuss Mo Yan’ 刘再复、许纪霖谈莫言, an interview conducted by the Financial Times (Chinese edition), 18 January 2013, online at:
Page 402, Jonathan Kaiman, ‘Mo Yan’s red sorghum village home may never be the same again’, The Guardian, 24 October 2012, online at: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2012/oct/23/mo-yan-red-sorghum-village
Page 403, ‘Give us five hundred corrupt officials and little Japan would be ruined for sure’ 给我五百贪官，吃垮小日本, article featuring images of protest slogans, first published in Apple Daily苹果日报, 18 September 2012, online at:
Page 404, ‘China anti-Japan protest damage may be over US$100m’, South China Morning Post, 13 November 2012, online at:
Page 404, Tweets by Ai and other critics of Mo Yan, posted 12 October 2012, are archived at: http://boxun.com/news/gb/china/2012/10/201210120826.shtml#.UbU8UEDI1h5
Page 405, quoted in Roderick MacFarquhar and Michael Schoenhals, Mao’s Last Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press), p.262.
Page 405, Liu Binyan; ed. Perry Link, People or Monsters? And other stories and reportage from China after Mao, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1983.
Page 405, ‘Many Chinese wish for an even stronger China’ 很多中国人希望中国更强硬, Weifang Evening News 潍坊晚报, 5 March 2013, online at: http://wfwb.wfnews.com.cn/content/20130305/Articel04002EL.htm
Page 407, Lu Xun, ‘Human Language’ 人话, in The Collected Works of Lu Xun 鲁迅全集, vol.5 (Beijing: renmin wenxue chubanshe, 1981), p.74.